Posts Tagged ‘Etzanoa’


In 1601, the Onate Expedition of Spanish Conquistadors tried to conquer a Wichita Indian town, Etzanoa, which the Spanish called the Great Settlement. The Spanish counted 2,000 homes—about 20,000 people—possibly the largest town in North America. The Spanish left, and the town remained until about 1700, probably a victim of diseases such as smallpox and cholera brought by Europeans. The towns of the Great Plains vanished by 1700, likely all because of disease. Etzanoa is located beside the Walnut River in present-day Arkansas City, Kansas.


By 1700, Great Plains was empty of people, allowing the prairie and the herds of buffalo to flourish. Spanish expeditions lost so many horses, that herds of wild horses lived there. Around 1700, the Sioux (Lakota, Dakota, Nakota) were pushed out of the Great Lakes by Ojibwa armed with French guns. The Sioux captured horses and fled to the prairies to hunt buffalo.

The stereotype of the buffalo-hunting Indian was born. Fodder for writers like me.

[photos are of Etzanoa]

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