They normally end in an exclamation point (writer alert: editors frown at them): E.g. I love you!
Exclamatory questions ask with great emotion & can use a question mark or an exclamation mark: Isn’t she beautiful!
Affirmative imperatives: Positive e.g. Go home
Negative imperative: Negative. E.g. Don’t go home.
Imperatives with tag questions: E.g. Go home, will you? Or Go home, won’t you?
Imperative emphasis: exclamation point. Go home!
Imperative emphasis by adding a subject. E.g. George, go home.
Incomplete sentences: Good for emphasis. E.g. “No way!”
Simple sentences: Subject-verb-object, use once in a while. E.g. “He ate the pie.”
Balanced Sentences/Parallel Construction
Balanced sentences: employ parallel structures of the same length and importance. E.g. from Dickens- “It was the best of worlds, it was the worst of Worlds.”
Parallelism: Using the same grammatical form in phrases: e.g. I love reading and writing. (not: I love to read and writing)
(writers need to vary the types they use)
Inverted word order: Verb first, usually yes/no question. E.g. “Are you going?”
Tone of voice: Rising pitch. E.g. “You are going?”
Interrogative word: usually open-ended, usually wh- “Where are you going?”
Alternative interrogatives: choice of answers. E.g. “Should you go?”
Tag questions: declarative sentence with interrogative phrase attached. E.g. “You are going, aren’t you?”
Cumulative sentence: Base clause + modifying phrase + modifying phrase etc. E.g. “The boy walked in, longing to see her, wanted to be with her, dying to kiss her.”
4 cumulative principles: 1) They are a process of addition 2) the sentences should give a sense of direction or movement 3) each word or phrase develops in a cumulative sentence & operates on different levels from the others 4) cumulative sentences give texture to a proposition (reason for a sentence)
4 types of phrases:
Participial phrases: participle is verb turned into an adjective. E.g. “hating his life” & “delighted with the pie.”
Gerund phrases: verb turned into a noun. E.g. “by eating” or “for cheating”
Infinitive phrases: “to find a job” or “to eat his dinner”
Prepositional phrases: “after eating pie” or “before finding a job”
4 types of suspensive sentence:
Inverted cumulative—cumulative sentences ending with main clause E.g. “His eyes inflamed, his body bowed, his words slurred, he was not the leader we expected him to be.”
Insert cumulative—qualifying material between subject & verb. E.g. “The old man, after saying his goodbyes, after waving to everyone, after refusing rides, walked home.”
Initial cumulative—conditional clause leads to complicated main clause. E.g. “If you see a grizzly, you look for a ranger, as quick as you can.”
Extended subject cumulative—initial clause seems complete. Start with infinitive or relative clause. E.g. “Even when the past excited me, even when history seemed important, I never forgot that the present was more important.”